As a follow up to my previous post on sight words on a ring, I have created a PDF of Kindergarten and First Grade Sight Words. If you would like a copy of the PDF, please email me. The yellow cards are for Kindergarten students. The green cards are First Grade students. The combined yellow […]
In our classroom, I utilize a reading workshop model. A mini-lesson followed by independent reading and guided reading. I’ve always wondered how I could make independent reading more robust. I love the “why” of independent reading but there were always a few students who weren’t totally into it. Given that so much time is spent independent reading […]
By Irene Fountas, Center for Reading Recovery and Literacy Collaborative Director/Author/Professor The following are some guiding principles from Irene Fountas that may help you get more power in your teaching: Notice the student’s precise reading behaviors. Eliminate ineffective behaviors and help the reader do what proficient readers do. Select a text on which the reader […]
Ο I use an assessment to determine the levels of my students (Assessing Reading Progress: Setting Goals & Monitoring, The most important focus for guided reading success, )
Ο I group my students based on their reading levels or needs (How to group students, How do I find out what my students need? The most valuable resource for literacy instruction)
Ο My groups are made of less than 6 students (Teachers can respond to children’s reading more effectively. Amendum, et al., 2009)
Ο I know the reading behaviors needed for my students to reach their next level (Guided Reading freebies! The most valuable resource for literacy instruction)
Ο I know the text characteristics for all the levels represented in my class (F & P Guided Reading Text Level Descriptions)
Ο I select books based on appropriate text characteristics for each level (Find information for selecting appropriate texts here)
Ο My students reread previous books for the first few minutes of the lesson (The Power of Rereading)
Ο I move students based on the results of the weekly running records (Assessing Reading Progress)
Ο My book introduction allows students to access the text, but leaves them work to do (How to Craft Strong Book Intros for Guided Reading)
Ο I take anecdotal notes while students are reading and note strengths and weaknesses (Observing and Noting Reading Behaviors)
Ο I engage groups in conversations about the text
- Literacy develops best through social interaction and dialogue with others (Dowhower, 1999)
- Teachers should make a shift from asking predetermined questions designed to ensure that the students arrive at the “right” meaning to facilitating conversations that encourage students’ exploratory talk as they arrive at a deeper meaning (Gavelek and Raphael, 1996)
Ο I have a variety of appropriate independent, shared, or project-based activities for the remainder of the class that keep them engaged while I am working with my groups (What does research say about literacy centers?, Powerful resource for small group instruction)
Ο There are no interruptions during my guided reading lessons from the remainder of my class (How do I organize my classroom for small group instruction?, 3 ways to ensure success at small group and center time, Powerful resource for small group instruction)
Ο I make sure when my groups leave the table they are applying what we practiced during guided reading (Critical component for guided reading success)
How’d you do?
There is only one way to know if your students are transferring the strategies you teach in guided reading to their reading behaviors, and that is…independent reading!
If you do not have 15-20 minutes in your day for independent reading, find a way to fit it in! And by the way, you need to be available during this time to observe and confer with your students!
What the research says…
Students who read independently become better readers, score higher on achievement tests in all subject areas, and have greater content knowledge than those who do not (Krashen 1993; Cunningham and Stanovich 1991; Stanovich and Cunningham 1993)
Students who do a substantial amount of voluntary reading demonstrate a positive attitude toward reading is upheld in both qualitative and quantitative research (Long and Henderson 1973; Greaney 1980; Hepler and Hickman 1982; Greaney and Hegarty 1987; Reutzel and Hollingsworth 1991; Shapiro and White 1991; Mathewson 1994; Barbieri 1995; Short 1995)
Students’ reading achievement has been shown to correlate with success in school and the amount of independent reading they do (Greaney 1980; Anderson, Fielding and Wilson 1988)
Time spent reading contributes to reading achievement in ways that simply doing worksheets or other activities does not (Allington, 2002; Foorman et al., 2006)
We become more proficient at what we practice (Cullinan 1992)
A few things to consider…
You may need to build the stamina of the students to read for 15-20 minutes at a time, especially if they are new to independent reading. Start with 3-5 minutes if you need to- rather than having 20 minutes where you are redirecting behaviors for 15 of them!
Make sure students have several books they can read independently, in case they lose interest in one or finish before time is up. They should also have one or two books that stretch them a bit in the direction of the next level they are working toward.
Allow students to find a space alone n the room where they can get comfortable or move away from others to focus on reading. Rug squares or pillows would be a good investment. This sends the message that reading is enjoyable and not just a desk and chair activity!
Consider giving students the opportunity for the last few minutes to talk with a partner about what they read. You can even offer a topic for them to discuss like What was something interesting you read? or What made you laugh while you were reading? Or you could have them discuss a skill you are working one like, What did you learn about your character? or Was your book fiction or non fiction? How do you know? This brings in social context of riding and creates accountability for their reading time. At some point students can begin to come up with sharing ideas or questions.
What should YOU do?
Observe: Simply watch reading behaviors of the class as a whole, or individual readers to determine teaching or support needs. Especially when you are introducing things and building stamina. Here is an inventory you can use to note student behaviors during independent reading. You can adjust the form as needed here EngagementInventory
Confer: Listen in to students’ reading while scaffolding, questioning, or checking on specific strategies you’ve taught during your guided reading lessons. How else will you know if they are actually applying the strategies they have learned properly- or at all?? Before leaving each student, tell them 2 things they did well and one thing they should work on…”2 Hugs and a Push” or “2 Glows and a Grow”.
Here are some sample of conferencing forms…click on them to get the PDF
I was taught in college that to be a teacher reading role model, I should read in front of my students; not just read aloud, but actually sit down and read in front of them so they could see how much reading meant to me. So when I embraced independent reading, I did just that; pulled my […]
LOVE Genia Connell’s post Guided Reading Organization Made Easy! Check out the pics and video below. Want to see more? Find a Universal Lesson Plan template, free binder cover, and book organization materials on her post- click here!
Great idea for collecting student work!
Maybe take pics once the work is complete to upload and save!
For observing and noting student behaviors…
Do you have materials and ideas you’d like to share? Leave a note below!
During an RTI Training, the presenter shared the 4 things the brain remembers…
When introducing ideas the children need to remember, incorporate one of these into the lesson to improve their retention!
Appropriate levels of dominance, cooperation, and knowing your students support a positive classroom dynamic!
Appropriate Dominance: the teacher’s ability to provide clear purpose and strong guidance regarding both academics and student behavior exhibited through establishing clear behavior expectations, clear learning goals, and exhibiting assertive behavior.
Appropriate Cooperation: where dominance centers on the teacher as the driving force, cooperation deals with the teacher and students working together as a team in learning as well as effective relationships. The main road to this end is the teacher taking personal interest in each student in the class.
Knowing Students: the most effective classroom managers do not treat all students the same, rather they take a personal interest in their students and show sensitivity to their diverse and specific needs.
Effective Classroom Management
which ultimately leads to…
High Student Achievement!!
Follow the path!
Marzano, R., Marzano, J., & Pickering, D (2003) Classroom Management that Works, ASDC
“Withitness” (with-it-ness) is a collection of superpowers that allow teachers manage their classroom effectively through preventative discipline. Do you have these superpowers?
Withitness is a model created by educational theorist Jacob Kounin who focused on a teacher’s ability to affect student behavior through instructional management. He defines withitness as the teachers ability to be aware of every action in the classroom and responding appropriately to it.
Here are a few of his key ideas…
Proximity and Body Language Eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, and physical proximity all indicate to the students that the teacher is in control. Constantly moving throughout the room and always facing the students demonstrates that the classroom is your domain and that you command student attention. Not in a threatening manner…but showing strength and confidence.
Overlapping This is the teachers ability to multitask in the classroom. Taking attendance, greeting students entering the classroom, and offering a word of encouragement for the students completing a morning activity all at the same time is an example of overlapping. Students are more likely to stay on task when they know the teacher has her eyes on everyone at all times.
Ripple Effect This is where the teachers clarity and firmness when correcting one student’s behavior positively impact the behavior of other students. This is most effective at the beginning of the school year in order for students to learn what will be tolerated and what will not. Along with this is the idea of correcting even the smallest infractions as if they were major in hopes of lessening the chances that major infractions will occur. The ripple effect is enhanced when the teacher names the offense and gives the reason why it is unacceptable with a firmness that conveys “I mean it”.
Group Focus Holding the attention of students is essential to managing the classroom and reducing misbehavior. Active participation is key to keeping students engaged. Questioning, regular checks for understanding, and varying students who are called upon to answer or contribute are a few ways to focus the attention of the class. Keeping a pace and rhythm to the day, smooth transitions, offering variety and challenges, and accountability all improve student attention and participation.
Bottom line….students are mirrors that reflect YOU.
If you are dry, dull, slow, and quiet they will be too.
If you are aggressive, mean, and demeaning they will be too.
If you display withitness….they will too!! Everybody wins!!